Cannabis is a plant of over 1,000 chemical constituents, varying by chemotype (chemical phenotype), batch and crop. Cannabinoids are the most active compounds. There are over 150 discovered cannabinoids in the plant, including THC, CBD, CBN, and others. Over 230 Terpenes and Terpenoids (more commonly known as essential oils, e.g. pinene, limonene) give smell and taste to Cannabis and to all other plants in nature. Like cannabinoids, they also provide numerous medicinal qualities.

THC and CBD – Main Phytocannabinoids and Their Ratios:

THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) provides many of the medicinal properties of Cannabis (see table below). THC is responsible for most of the psychoactive and neurological effects of Cannabis, including euphoria, laughter, altered sense of space and time, transient changes in short-term memory and coordination, heightened sensory perception (five senses). Finding an individual dose of THC that produces therapeutic benefits without affecting activities of daily living is the goal for most patients.


CBD (Cannabidiol) produces a multitude of medicinal effects of Cannabis and is considered a “non-psychoactive”, not mind-altering cannabinoid. CBD helps to decrease the psychoactivity and other side effects of THC (e.g. heart racing, hunger, anxiety, sedation) while enhancing some of THC’s benefits. At the 1:1 ratio of CBD to THC, psychoactive effects of THC start to diminish. At the ratio of 3:1 or more with CBD predominance, they are minimal to none.

CBDTHCeffectmeaning
analgesicreduces pain
antiemeticreduces nausea and vomiting
anti-cancerinhibits cancer cell growth
anti-inflammatorysignificantly reduces inflammation
antioxidantprotects cells from oxidative damage
neuroprotectiveslows nerve cell degeneration, promotes new cell growth
antiepilepticrelieves or reduces seizures
muscle relaxanthelps to relieve muscle spasms and bowel/bladder contractions
glaucomalowers eye pressure (THC); protects retinal neurons (both)
PTSDfear extinction, focus on present (THC); relieves anxiety, depression (CBD)
anxiolyticrelieves anxiety
antidepressantrelieves symptoms of depression
antipsychotictreats psychosis/hallucinations
anti-addictivehelps to treat addiction
immunomodulatorhelps to treat autoimmune conditions
antibiotic, antiviral, antifungaltreats bacterial, viral, and fungal infections, effective against MRSA
anti-diabeticreduces blood sugar levels
anti-ishemicreduces risk of artery blockage
vasorelaxantreduces vascular tension/blood pressure
bone stimulantpromotes bone growth
anti-psoriatichelps to treat psoriasis
anti-pruriticrelieves itching
orexigenicstimulates appetite
bronchodilationhelps to open airways and breathe better

Read more:

Phytocannabinoids: a unified critical inventory.

Minor Phytocannabinoids: A Misleading Name but a Promising Opportunity for Biomedical Research.

Terpenes/Terpenoids in Cannabis: Are They Important?

What is needed to become a legal Medical Cannabis patient?

Step 1
Schedule an Appointment No referrals required. To schedule a Medical Marijuana evaluation, please call us at (203) 951-5700 or book online.
Step 2
Meet with the Doctor Online During a telehealth video appointment our physician will determine if a Medical Cannabis Card is beneficial for you.
Step 3
Get Access to Medical Cannabis Qualified patients will be certified to the state on the same day of the appointment. Patients then will need to register for a Medical Marijuana card with the state, it takes from 1 to 14 days for the state to email the card.
We Invite You to the Future of Medicine Today!

The Endocannabinoid System is the reason why Cannabis works on the human body and why it has so many medicinal qualities. Endocannabinoids (internally produced cannabinoids, e.g. Anandamide) interact with cannabinoid receptors (e.g. CB1, CB2), which are present throughout our body. We have this system to “relax, eat, sleep, protect, and forget”, as was summarized by one of the world’s leading cannabinoid scientists in 1998. Since then many other roles have been additionally discovered, including pain control, feeling euphoria (e.g. “runner’s high”), and homeostasis (the inner balance). Phytocannabinoids (plant cannabinoids, e.g. THC, CBD) give our system a boost by interacting with the same receptors.

Cannabis helps to restore normal function of the cells and systems, and most importantly, it helps to maintain the inner balance of the human body and mind (homeostasis). Homeostatic function is the cornerstone of the Endocannabinoid System and the main reason why so many patients successfully control numerous symptoms and conditions with Medical Cannabis and get to eliminate or significantly reduce the burden of synthetic pharmaceutical drugs, their associated costs and adverse effects.  

“The variety of medical applications of Cannabis are remarkable. A relatively recent (early 1990s) discovery of the Endocannabinoid System (internally produced cannabinoids and their receptors) found to be present in nearly every living organism – is one of the greatest breakthroughs in Physiology and Medicine. This helped us understand how one plant could safely and effectively treat a myriad of medical conditions since ancient times. The knowledge in this field is rapidly expanding with over 30,000 studies already published and 5 new studies coming out every day. I am excited that medical schools are starting to include this important subject into educational programs. At present, each practicing physician is required to have an extensive education before applying Cannabis and its numerous constituents to the treatment of patients. I am eager and enthusiastic to share my acquired knowledge with patients in order to help them relieve debilitating symptoms and heal with the help of this extraordinary medicinal plant.”

— Alex Bibikau, M.D.

Evolution of the knowledge on Cannabis, Cannabinoids, and the Endocannabinoid System:

PubMed Database search:

  • 1961 – 1991 “endocannabinoid” 5 results.
  • 1992 – 2022 “endocannabinoid” 12,304 results.
  • 1961 – 1991 “cannabinoid” 1,812 results.
  • 1992 – 2022 “cannabinoid” 29,564 results.
  • 1961 – 1991 “cannabis” 4,645 results.
  • 1992 – 2022 “cannabis” 25,481 results.

Read more:

History of Cannabis and the Endocannabinoid system
 

The Endocannabinoid System and its Modulation by Phytocannabinoids

How to obtain a legal
Medical Marijuana Card

Step 1
Schedule an Appointment No referrals required. To schedule a Medical Marijuana evaluation, please call us at (203) 951-5700 or book online.
Step 2
Meet with the Doctor Online During a telehealth video appointment our physician will determine if a Medical Cannabis Card is beneficial for you.
Step 3
Get Access to Medical Cannabis Approved patients will receive their Medical Marijuana Certificate via email on the same day, which will give you access to a licensed Medical Cannabis Dispensary in Virginia.
We Invite You to the Future of Medicine Today!

Cannabis sativa L. is a flowering plant species within the Cannabaceae family (along with its two siblings – Hops and Hackberry tree).

Medical Cannabis (or Medical Marijuana) has been used for millennia to treat ailments and alleviate symptoms. From 1851 until 1941 it was legally used by patients in the U.S. for over 100 medical conditions. However, for the next 55 years it was banned for political reasons. Thankfully, the tide is changing, and now most U.S. states legalized Medical Cannabis along with many other countries around the world. Cannabis helps to restore normal function of the cells and systems, and most importantly, it helps to maintain the inner balance of the human body and mind (homeostasis). The medicinal benefits are hard to ignore, and now you as a patient can assuredly be using this medicine to alleviate symptoms of related conditions under the supervision of a trained physician.

Read More:

Cannabis Sativa

Cannabis: Chemistry, extraction and therapeutic applications

How to become a legal
Medical Cannabis patient

Step 1
Schedule an Appointment No referrals required. To schedule a Medical Marijuana evaluation, please call us at (203) 951-5700 or book online.
Step 2
Meet with the Doctor Online During a telehealth video appointment our physician will determine if a Medical Cannabis Card is beneficial for you.
Step 3
Get Access to Medical Cannabis Approved patients will receive their Medical Marijuana Certificate via email on the same day, which will give you access to a licensed Medical Cannabis Dispensary in Virginia.
We Invite You to the Future of Medicine Today!