What is inside Cannabis?

Cannabis is a plant of over 1,000 chemical constituents, varying by chemotype (chemical phenotype), batch and crop. Cannabinoids are the most active compounds. There are over 150 discovered cannabinoids in the plant, including THC, CBD, CBN, and others. Over 230 Terpenes and Terpenoids (more commonly known as essential oils, e.g. pinene, limonene) give smell and taste to Cannabis and to all other plants in nature. Like cannabinoids, they also provide numerous medicinal qualities.

THC and CBD – Main Phytocannabinoids and Their Ratios:

THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) provides many of the medicinal properties of Cannabis (see table below). THC is responsible for most of the psychoactive and neurological effects of Cannabis, including euphoria, laughter, altered sense of space and time, transient changes in short-term memory and coordination, heightened sensory perception (five senses). Finding an individual dose of THC that produces therapeutic benefits without affecting activities of daily living is the goal for most patients.


CBD (Cannabidiol) produces a multitude of medicinal effects of Cannabis and is considered a “non-psychoactive”, not mind-altering cannabinoid. CBD helps to decrease the psychoactivity and other side effects of THC (e.g. heart racing, hunger, anxiety, sedation) while enhancing some of THC’s benefits. At the 1:1 ratio of CBD to THC, psychoactive effects of THC start to diminish. At the ratio of 3:1 or more with CBD predominance, they are minimal to none.

CBDTHCeffectmeaning
analgesicreduces pain
antiemeticreduces nausea and vomiting
anti-cancerinhibits cancer cell growth
anti-inflammatorysignificantly reduces inflammation
antioxidantprotects cells from oxidative damage
neuroprotectiveslows nerve cell degeneration, promotes new cell growth
antiepilepticrelieves or reduces seizures
muscle relaxanthelps to relieve muscle spasms and bowel/bladder contractions
glaucomalowers eye pressure (THC); protects retinal neurons (both)
PTSDfear extinction, focus on present (THC); relieves anxiety, depression (CBD)
anxiolyticrelieves anxiety
antidepressantrelieves symptoms of depression
antipsychotictreats psychosis/hallucinations
anti-addictivehelps to treat addiction
immunomodulatorhelps to treat autoimmune conditions
antibiotic, antiviral, antifungaltreats bacterial, viral, and fungal infections, effective against MRSA
anti-diabeticreduces blood sugar levels
anti-ishemicreduces risk of artery blockage
vasorelaxantreduces vascular tension/blood pressure
bone stimulantpromotes bone growth
anti-psoriatichelps to treat psoriasis
anti-pruriticrelieves itching
orexigenicstimulates appetite
bronchodilationhelps to open airways and breathe better

Read more:

Phytocannabinoids: a unified critical inventory.

Minor Phytocannabinoids: A Misleading Name but a Promising Opportunity for Biomedical Research.

Terpenes/Terpenoids in Cannabis: Are They Important?

What is needed to become a legal Medical Cannabis patient?

Step 1
Schedule an Appointment No referrals required. To schedule a Medical Marijuana evaluation, please call us at (203) 951-5700 or book online.
Step 2
Meet with the Doctor Online During a telehealth video appointment our physician will determine if a Medical Cannabis Card is beneficial for you.
Step 3
Get Access to Medical Cannabis Qualified patients will be certified to the state on the same day of the appointment. Patients then will need to register for a Medical Marijuana card with the state, it takes from 1 to 14 days for the state to email the card.
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